Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less


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The CSU conversion has not been widely used. The Nagel anomaloscope is a constant deviation spectroscope with three entrance slits to provide spectral lights for the Rayleigh equation. The amount of test light and ratio of nm to nm mixture lights is achieved by moving slits in the optical path. The slit mechanisms are quite delicate and will slip if the instrument is handled roughly. The Nagel anomaloscope should be placed where it will not be disturbed. The anomalous quotient may still be used, but comparison of the data to those of other instruments might not be valid, since the spectral distribution of the primaries may have been affected.

A spectroscope may be used to check the wavelength bands passed by the slits.

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Sample spectroradiometric data were given by Pokorny and colleagues for a Nagel Model II anomaloscope. For routine clinical use, no calibration is required by the user. The lamp voltage should be stabilized to provide a reproducible correlated color temperature Schmidt, The primaries and slit mechanism of Nagel anomaloscopes differ between models, and because of that it may be difficult to compare the results of various population studies that have been published, even if data are expressed in terms of the anomalous quotient Moreland, The Rayleigh equation provides differential diagnosis for simple and extreme protanomalous and deuteranomalous trichromacy and for protanopia and deuteranopia.

It is possible that the distinction between an extreme anomaly and the corresponding anopia may be missed, because the Nagel anomaloscope does not cover the full dichromatic confusion range. Nevertheless the Nagel Model I is considered a standard test of red-green color vision, and validation measures of other color vision tests are based on comparisons of their results with results on the Nagel Model I. Anomaloscope data on observers with normal color vision were reported by Willis and Farnsworth and Schmidt for the Nagel Model II anomaloscope and by Helve for the Nagel Model I anomaloscope.

Helve tested normal observers who were selected from 1, conscripts median age 21 to 22 years.

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Matching ranges and match midpoints were evaluated under neutral adaptation. The distributions of matching ranges and midmatching points for normal and anomalous trichromats are shown in Figure where the percentage distributions are shown for raw scale units. For normal trichromats, the distribution of matching ranges is skewed with a modal value at 3 scale units. The distribution of match midpoints is peaked and symmetrical with a mean value near 40 scale units.


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Matching widths of anomalous trichromats are usually broader than those of normal trichromats. The match midpoint occurs between 50 and 65 raw scale units for protanomalous trichromats and between 12 and 31 raw scale units for deuteranomalous trichromats. These raw scale units vary between different instruments.

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The mean normal match on a given Nagel Model I anomaloscope varies between 40 and 50 scale units. Norms for the Nagel Model I anomaloscope. When converted to anomalous quotients, the total range of the match midpoints for normal observers was 0. Total range of all matches was 0. In previous studies of the match midpoint using the Nagel Model II, Schmidt reported a range of 0.

The protanope and deuteranope are distinguished on the Nagel Model I anomaloscope by their settings of the nm brightness adjustment. The deuteranope sets the brightness at approximately the same position near 15 for all red-green mixtures. The protanope sets the yellow brightness to higher values when the mixture field is near the green primary and to lower values when the mixture field is near the red primary Pokorny et al. The Pickford-Nicolson anomaloscope was designed to measure the Rayleigh equation; an equation similar to the Engelking-Trendelenburg equation; and the Pickford-Lakowski equation.

The Pickford-Nicolson anomaloscope is a filter anomaloscope that uses broadband filters to provide primary and test wavelengths. The instrument presents the observer with a circular split field. The test field appears in the left half, its radiance varied by means of a knob with a scale on the top of the instrument. When the knob is adjusted, the test field varies from dark at scale zero to increasingly brighter test fields to its maximum at scale The primary mixture appears in the right half.

The relative proportion of the primaries can be adjusted continuously; the mixture ratios are read from a scale on the top of the instrument. For the Rayleigh match, a yellow test is matched to a mixture of green and red. At scale zero, the mixture field appears red to the color-normal observer and changes continuously from red through orange, yellow, yellow-green, to green at scale In the pilot model Pickford and Lakowski, , the normal match is at 36 to 39 units of red-green mixture and 20 units of yellow. The luminance of the red primary is greater than that of the green primary.

The field luminance at the normal match is 8. For the Engelking-Trendelenburg equation, a blue-green test is matched to a mixture of green and blue. At scale zero, the mixture field appears green and changes continuously from green through pale blue-greens and green-blues to blue at scale In the pilot model, the normal match occurs at a mixture of 45 to 49 units, and the desaturated blue-green test field is set at For the Pickford-Lakowski equation, a yellowish white Illuminant A is matched to a mixture of yellow and blue. At scale zero, the mixture field appears yellow and changes continuously to white and then blue at scale In the pilot model, the normal match occurs at a mixture of 36 to 41 units, and the white brightness value is about The position of the normal matches varies between instruments because of variation in the color filters Lakowski, The examiner sets up the required equation by inserting the correct filter pair into the mixture field.

An aperture controlled with a knob on top of the instrument controls the luminance of the mixture field. This aperture is usually in the open position and is never adjusted during the test procedure. A filter pair is also used in the test field to allow desaturation of the test field. A neutral filter is used with the nm test filter in the Rayleigh equation and with the nm test filter in the Engelking-Trendelenburg equation. Using a knob on the top of the instrument, the examiner can set the amount of desaturation.

In the pilot model, the desaturation knob was at 60 for the Rayleigh match and at 67 for the Engelking-Trendelenburg match. For the Pickford-Lakowski match, the white provided by Illuminant A is made slightly reddish by using a nm filter to adjust the color balance, and the desaturating knob is at For any of the three equations, once the desaturating knob is set, it is not changed again during the experimental procedure.

The color fields appear on a diffusing screen at the front of the instrument. By use of apertures 5 to 50 mm in diameter , circular split fields of various sizes or even two small circles may be presented. The field size is determined by viewing distance; distances of up to two meters may be used.

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Usually the observer is at one meter, giving a range of about 20 seconds to almost 3 degrees, depending on the aperture. The testing procedure detailed by Pickford , ; Pickford and Lakowski, is followed. Ambient illumination provided by the room light or window light is allowed, provided that no source of illumination is directed at the viewing screen. Maximal illumination on the desk or table holding the instrument should be no more than lux.

The examiner sits at the front side of the instrument close enough to adjust the knobs but also seated so that he or she can view the screen and point at the stimulus field if necessary. The observer sits about one meter from the screen, which should be at eye level. A preliminary screening with a plate test is recommended so that the examiner knows whether the observer has a color defect.

Each eye is tested separately.

Chapter 50, How To Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less

All manipulations of the anomaloscope are performed by the examiner. The test starts with presentation of a normal match, and the test luminance is adjusted if necessary. The observer reports on the field appearance. As with the Linksz procedures, the observer's response determines the examiner's next steps.

If the normal match was accepted or close, the matching range is next examined. For the normal trichromat, the examiner starts with a mixture that is definitely not a match e. Three or four such runs are made at each end of the matching range. For the dichromat, the full red-green range is examined in larger unit steps. Because the luminance of the red primary is greater than that of the green primary, changes in the mixture ratio are accompanied by luminance changes; the examiner must adjust the yellow test-field luminance at each red-green mixture.

For the anomalous trichromat, large steps on the red-green scale are used to establish the gross range of anomalous settings. The ends of the matching range are then established using small steps and the method of limits as described for normal trichromats. The anomaloscope contains scales from which are read a number proportional to the primary ratio in the mixture field and a number proportional to the luminance of the test color.

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In the case of the Rayleigh equation, the matching range includes all of the scale values on the red-green mixture scale that a given observer says match the yellow test field. A third statistic is also noted: the scale value indicating the value of the yellow scale.


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Anomalous quotients may be calculated, but they cannot be compared with anomalous quotients derived from other Pickford-Nicolson anomaloscopes or from the Nagel anomaloscope. An alternative method of expressing the equation of a given observer relative to that of a population of normal observers is to use the statistical properties of the distribution of match midpoints made by normal observers Pickford, For the Pickford-Nicolson anomaloscope, match midpoints of a population of normal observers show a normal symmetrical, peaked distribution.

Such a distribution is characterized by its mean and its standard deviation.

gardenbuds.com/phone-honor-10-listening-application.php A way of expressing deviation from the mean value is to define what is termed the normal deviate or z score:. Using tables available in standard statistics textbooks, it is possible to estimate with what frequency any match or a more deviant match would be expected to occur as a variant of the originally sampled normal population. For the Pickford-Nicolson anomaloscope, matching widths of a population of normal observers have a skewed distribution. Pickford suggested that these widths be characterized by their modal most frequently occurring value, and that data be expressed in terms of the mode.

Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less
Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less
Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less
Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less
Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less
Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less
Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less
Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less Chapter 50, How to Look 10-20 Years Younger in 90 Minutes or Less

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