Downloaded 0 times. Jamie "Bouch does it the right way. Taylor "I am enjoying eating healthier and I feel so much better throughout the day. Maria "Not only did I lose a total of 17lbs in 28 days, but I lost inches off my body and gained muscle.
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Free e-book download. Free e-book download Get your free ebook now! Free e-book download Top coach reveals how to become your best! Revealed the secrets the fitness industry professionals don't want you to know. Werbung: pureblack. Do not let time go by! Contact Details info mbsprts. Contact Form. For example, standing on one foot represents an example of a general skill which develops static balance. On the other hand, standing on one foot on a balancing bar can be a part of a gymnastic set where it represents a special skill.
Closed agility skills have programmed assignments and predictable or stable environments. An example of a closed skill can be gymnastic routine or set in figure skating. Open skill have nonprogrammed assignments and unpredictable or unstable environments. The context changes during performance, and the training objective is to rapidly respond and adapt to new or unforeseen stimuli and situation. An example of a open skill can be situation in games when a defense player must respond to unforeseen movement of the opponent.
Continuous tasks have no identifiable start or finish. An example can be skills of cyclic character cycling, skating, rowing. Discrete tasks have a definite start and finish. An example can be skills of acyclic character throw, jump. Serial tasks are composed of discrete skills performed in sequence, with successful execution of each subtask determining the overall outcome. An example can be skills of a combined cyclic and acyclic character javelin throwing, long jump.
Tactical component of sports training focuses on different ways to conduct sports competition towards victory. Key terms of this component are strategy and tactics. Strategy means a plan which was created beforehand and is based on experience with a purposeful conduct of sports competition that has proved to lead to an expected result in a specific competition.
Tactics means practical execution of strategy in a specific race situation. Practical execution is based mainly on acquired possible solutions of specific race situation. Progress of acquiring possible solutions of race situations must be in compliance with the duration of sports training within the selected long-term conception of sports training. Almost every volleyball team has some weakness which can be used as advantage for the opposing team.
Let us suppose that the line-up of some anonymous team includes a player who is not so good at receiving of first hit on their half. At present, reception is a necessary basis of a good quality game in volleyball. Let us further imagine that this team has got a very good setter. Strategy is then based on the fact that it is necessary to aim service at this player in the course of game and attempt to lead own offense over such part of the net that is defended by a player of a lower height. Tactics is then based on practical solution of game situation when service is aimed in such a way so that the receive spiker view of the ball is made difficult.
In such a situation he would have to make as long movement as possible towards the place of reception; offence is conducted according to the position of a specific defense player, etc. Another example of strategy could be summarized as follows: The basis of own good quality game is to make opponents argue with one another. Tactics is then to choose one of the opponents who is a bit choleric a talk to him at the right moment.
There are no two exactly identical people in the world. Everyone is an original who acts as an individual on the outside. Personality of each individual is characterized by a number of factors. Among them, there are the following:.watch
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Temperament which is manifested on the outside through emotions and is related to the dynamics of mental processes. In practice, four basic types of temperament are distinguished: sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, and melancholic. Acting can be described as an acitivity carried out to follow a clear-cut aim. Motivation is closely related to activation level.
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Activation level can be described as the level to which organism is activated. Relationship between activation level and sports performance has been proved to exist. The curve of dependence is in the shape of inverted U. The interpretation is that both very high and very low activation level is of a negative influence on sports performance. Qualities of an individual are innate and can be divided into two positive devotion, persistence and two negative dependence, selfishness categories.
Qualities of an individual are characterized with four dimensions: direction, intensity, scope and duration. Attitudes are — as opposed to qualities — acquired and they are repeatedly manifested in given situations.
Attitudes originate from echoing, maturing, rationality or on the basis of emotional reactions. All of the above factors make a unity which is referred to as character of an individual. An example of temperament manifestation in sports can be a response of two different volleyball players to a game situation in which the referee makes an unintentional discriminating mistake against one of the teams. Each volleyball player knows that referees never change their statements.
During my career as a coach, I encountered many cases of insufficient or, on the other hand, exaggerated motivation. Neither of these leads to a good performance in competition. It is necessary to keep activation level at an optimum level. Both positive and negative qualities are manifested in any situation. In sports, these qualities are manifested much more in situations when the athlete or the team loses. What can be used as an example from the area of sports is a team of athletes of a senior category of a high-league collective sport who considered training of physical fitness useless.
It was very difficult to begin with fitness training. Now, the attitude of nearly all the athletes is totally different. For a well physically prepared athlete is able to resist fatique more effectively and consequently manifest better performance. Tasks of sports training focus on systematic development of the components of sports training. Development of individual components of training is influenced by the structure of sports performance.
Sports performance is understood as an extent to which a motor task limited by rules of a given sports discipline is accomplished.
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Sports perfomance factors are understood as a relatively independent parts of sports performance. Traditionally recognized factors of sports training in any sports disciplines include:.
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A common feature of the factors is that they can be affected by training fitness, technical, tactical, and psychical or they are taken into account in talent picking somatic — e. Sports performance factors correspond to the above sports training components see chapter 1. Sports performance is influenced by a number of factors. The importance and hierarchy of the factors depends on a specific sports discipline. Figure 1 Example of sports performance factors in different sports discipline.
These factors are linked with each other, e. Conversely tactical component can not be fully utilized without adequate quality of technical skills. The physical demands in sport are related to the activities of the athlete. The performance in selected sports discipline is based on the characteristic of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems as well as muscles, combined with the interplay of the nervous system.
The muscular system is constituted by a multitude of components, which have important influence on the mechanical and metabolic behavior of the muscle. Muscle morphology and architecture, and myosin isoform composition play a major role in the contractile strength characteristics of the muscle evaluated as maximal isometric, concentric, and eccentric contraction force, maximal rate of force development, and power generation.
Glycolytic muscle enzyme levels and ionic transport systems are major determinants of anaerobic power and capacity. Likewise, mitochondrial enzyme levels and capillary density exert a strong influence on aerobic muscle performance in turn affecting the force development and the maximal power output of human skeletal muscle, while also influencing the endurance performance of the muscle fibers.
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